PNF patterns

This week we explored PNF patterns (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation).

Here are some links: (a history of PNF)

These videos (from physical therapy) are a bit out there and specific to their academic fields but I think they are interesting to watch. Can you see the correlation between these movements and principles with what we’ve been studying in class?

You have been presented with a great deal of information in this class. And, I know that it is a challenge to try to navigate through often overlapping, polarizing and seemingly abstract concepts about movement/somatics. Hopefully you can remain open and find things that may be useful to your studies and that you may integrate certain ideas that interest you and fold them into your personal practice. The intention here is to present alternative philosophies that look at ‘the subtle body’ that are not normally a part of dance ‘training’ so that your experience may be expanded.


20 thoughts on “PNF patterns

  1. In the article relating to PNF, “Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation: The Foundation of Functional Training” a focus on the balance between one’s muscles and joints is used to acquire a more stable and thorough use of the nueromuscular system. Stability and balance is found in lounging, squatting, and other challenging movements. The concepts introduced in this article remind me of a statement brought forth in class: “There is much give as there is take” or something to that extent. This statement reminds me that with every long stretch of the body there must also be an equal and opposite contraction stemming from another place in the body. Each movement expressed from the body, when equal and opposite, produces balance and stability. For example, when two people hold hands, face each other, lean back, and begin to squat to reach a stable, steady position, their weight and force must be equal and opposite. They must give as much as they take. If these goals are not met, the pair will fall. This same concept can be applied in a singular form. A dancer may focus on a give and take principle in order to gain steady balance throughout movement. I personally continue to struggle with this concept, but I find that class discussion and slowly applying this concept to a particular movement does help. During class, for instance, anytime I am in the X position, I attempt to stretch my arms, hands and fingertips as long as possible without raising my shoulders. I focus on sending the energy stemming from my shoulders down towards my torso and to the opposite wall. This is a simple example, but it helps me to adapt these concepts to other movements for the rest of the class (or at least attempt to).

  2. Although I didn’t know that the concept of PNF stood for a lot of what we study and practice in class, I’ve always been highly aware that everything we do is meant to keep our bodies healthy. Part of the reason why I enjoy this class so much is because we get to explore different variations of movements in different parts of the body. By investigating our bodies through movement, we then begin to think about the areas that we don’t typically concern ourselves with. Like the ribs, the pelvis or the elbow. Body parts like these are ones that are ignored, when really they should be given more attention. These are the mechanical parts that run our bodies, without them we would not be able to function properly. And so with PNF, the strengthening of these mechanisms, particularly the smaller mechanisms, is essential.
    Something as simple as curling into a ball and unbending on the floor can be a valuable exercise. I know it is for me because of a back problem I have. The curling helps me stretch my back. That helps alleviate tightness and stiffness that I may have at that moment. And the unbending helps me reshape and strengthen the curve in my lower back, which is essential for the spine and body. Both the spine and the body together need the proper curves in order to keep the body functioning.
    The cross body movements are just as important. When we walk that’s exactly what our bodies do. It alternates from left arm right leg to right arm left leg. When I’m on the floor doing any cross body motions, I can tell that my left arm right leg cross body diagonal is much stronger than my right arm left leg diagonal. Not only can I feel it, but also I can see it in my right hip, it wiggles a little higher than my left hip. This obviously tells me my right hip is higher than the left. And again, it is through PNF that I will have to find different methods to train and strengthen the less engaged areas of my body.

  3. This class has definitely had its challenges because I am learning things that are a completely new concept to me. I find the PNF patterns very interesting and very useful to what I want to do in the future. I am currently interested in occupational therapy, and I think that PNF patterns will come in play with that practice.
    From the videos and articles attached above, and from class discussion, I learned that PNF is a lot about enhancing overall movement. It is about learning how to use your muscles in the most effective and safe way. PNF requires you to engage your muscles, joints, and all other systems in the body. The thing that I related to the most was the concept of exercising without sacrificing other areas in your body. People often exercise with the intention or goal of building muscle. In order to build muscle people often focus on one specific area of their body at a time and neglect the rest of their body, therefore more likely to obtain injuries. The goal of PNF is to get people to use the little, unseen muscles in your body to gain control and balance and therefore less likely to get injured. This is a very important concept and should be used in all forms of exercise.
    I definitely see the concepts of PNF applied in dance. Dancers jump, and plie, they turn and roll on the floor, etc. They put so much force on so many parts of their bodies and it is important that we know how to use those muscles properly. As discussed in class, in order to achieve this, it is important to gain a full range of motion in your body by abducting and adducting, stretching and contracting, and reaching to all corners and diagonals of the space around you. Learning about PNF in this class has been very valuable to me because I now approach dance in a way that I haven’t thought of before. I realize that not everything we do in dance should be done for aesthetic reasons but for safety reasons as well. I also realize that I need to engage my muscles, joints, skin and every part of my body when dancing and not ignore the parts of the body that aren’t obviously being used. There are little things like the small muscles in your rib cage that should be used as well.

  4. I definitely see a correlation between the movements in the videos and the information about PNF in the article as well as in our class. In one video we see how the foot is abducting and doing a similar exercise as we have learn on Wednesdays choreography. Also the arm movement is similar to what we have been doing. In the article of PNF it’s repeated several times how these movements are to enhance movements and stimulate the proprioceptive. The goal then being to progress in movements and motion, which I find an important information to know because there is a reason for practicing these movements. It is clear that these movements are not always going to be easy because you are engaging your mind not only the body. However, as a dancer it is important to practice these movements to progress in mobility, balance, and movements overall.

  5. Integrating proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation into my conception of dance, I am intrigued by the idea of balance. The article, “Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation: The Foundation of Functional Training” explored this idea of balance and how the training aims to achieve a balance between mobility and stability. Effective communication between mobility and stability is how I think interesting and authentic movement is created. Oftentimes, I see myself not fully aware of both ends of this spectrum–I emphasize mobility and lose stability. Today’s class challenged me to move as a comprehensive whole and to negotiate continuously with all my moving parts to lengthen and engage my body.
    Every class I am so surprised by how much control and restraint my body can exhibit. Instead of reaching widely with parts of my body and emotional expression, there is something really captivating in seeing an inner energy that emanates from a very controlled form. And not like, a clenched and stiff body but a body that is aware of how all of the muscles move and connect with each other through all movement. Interestingly, this quality enhances the presentation of the movement and I feel like so much more of an engaged and dynamic dancer.
    Today I really tried to connect my breath with the movements introduced in class today, and felt almost like I was both taking and experiencing my body moving through a little somatic journey. I felt very connected and invested in the movements. And even though the movements may appear small from an outside perspective, the entire class was so challenging (in a fantastic way)!

  6. I definitely see the correlations between the video content and what we do in class. I can see the similarity in doing flexions and extensions. After learning about PNF patterns, I began to be aware of the parts of my body that I didn’t know we could stretch and flex. I enjoy doing these patterns because we focus on certain parts of our bodies that are usually ignored or not stretched out. It feels nice to stretch these areas or to have our body contour in weird ways in order to do so. Sometimes it is challenging because one side of my body lengthens and stretches more than the other side. For example, when we flex and extend our toes, I find it difficult because my toes are not used to it and it becomes difficult to lead with the big toe or the little toe. But overall, my body enjoys these patterns that are good for the body and at the same time I am learning more to be aware of the spaces in my body that I normally don’t pay attention to.

  7. There is definitely a correlation between these movements and the principles we have been studying in class. This class gave me my first introduction to these PNF patterns so I am still trying to wrap my mind around it all. I never realized all the things that are happening in my body with, what I originally thought to be, simple movements. The arm movement from the video reminds a lot of the spiraling arm motion we do in the beginning of our combination in class. Just within that arm movement there is so much going on! Our outside arm is abducting, while externally rotating and our inside arm is adducting, crossing our lateral plane, while internally rotating. Thinking about these PNF patterns has made the last few classes more challenging for me as a dancer. I’m not only focused on what movement I’m doing, but also what I’m flexing or stretching, what muscles I should be engaging or relaxing, where I’m internally or externally rotating, whether I’m abducting or adducting, what planes my body is crossing etc. It’s a lot to think about! Hopefully, over our last couple of classes this intense thinking of mine will turn into more of a casual awareness while I’m moving.

  8. I certainly see the correlation between the movements and principles we’ve been learning in class and those presented in these videos and the article. In particular, the article “Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation: The Foundation of Functional Training” describes how the body must be trained in order to function as one cohesive system and function properly. PNF patterns are certainly one way to achieve this.

    The idea of integrating this into art styles, like dance, is also important and a wonderful application of this idea. One thing PNF patterns have helped me learn is the importance of integrating difference exercises at once and performing them together for a body that is less prone to accidents—this goes hand in hand with the idea of preventing injury before it begins. PNF patterns have also taught me that movement is much better when it has a three-dimensional quality to it. PNF patterns like extension, adduction and rotation have taught me that movement can be both more interesting and functional. PNF patterns are also a great way to explore movement. This is the first time I have been exposed to them, and I feel that they should be taught in every dance class because they serve to make dancers aware of how to most effectively and functionally carry out movement.

    I also absolutely love a lot of the ways movement is described when using PNF patterns. I especially liked the Irene Dowd’s spirals exercise today in class, and also deeply appreciate all of Gerald’s individual feedback to everyone in the class because he really realizes that everyone’s bodies are different, and I feel like some classes do not emphasize that enough. I feel like PNF patterns also have a special way of emphasizing everyones’ entire bodies rather than just some parts of them. PNF patterns should be the future in dance!

  9. I love the idea of incorporating PNF into how I think about dance. In the article “Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation: The Foundation of Functional Training”, the author discusses the two areas of strengthening and stretching techniques and patterning being such large components of PNF. I agree that with the author in that it is important to establish a good foundation for yourself with proper muscle stretching and strengthening so that you can create good patterns and habits to prevent injury. I think this is often mimicked in the way most dance classes are planned by starting off with simple stretches and core exercises and then moving on to technique. Thinking about PNF when dancing for the past few classes has changed the way I think about dance. I have been told many times by previous dance teachers to think of the movements as “picture moments”, like when doing an attitude turn, so I only focus on hitting a certain pose; but when doing so, I forget about the movements that come before and after. After thinking about using PNF techniques, I feel more aware about the positions that my body is in during transitions movements and I feel less stiff. I might not be hitting all the “picture moments” they way my previous teachers expected before but I definitely feel like I have more control in my movements and feel more connected to my body.

  10. In reading the two articles, my understanding of PNF philosophy and movement has grown compared to what I retained in class. I never fully understood I guess that PNF is a developed form of physical therapy to aide basic movement that is essential to dance technique. As stated in the IPNFA article, the purpose of PNF is, “to analyze and assess a patient’s movement while at the same time facilitating more efficient strategies of functional movement.” Applying and utilizing the strategies and approaches to movement in class, we as dancers are able to closely evaluate how our body moves as it moves, and in doing so, are facilitating our bodies’ ability to move in the long run. It seems to me that these basics are necessary in understanding the full realm of bodily movement, and it seems strange that they were not introduced to me at a younger age, having always been involved with activities involving high volumes of movement. The improvement and maintaining of joint, muscle, and neuromuscular communication within the body seems to be at the focal point of PNF philosophy. As Burton and Brigham highlight in their article, “It is thought that the education and reinforcement of repeated PNF patterns increases coordination while promoting joint stability and neuromuscular control.” It is my belief that the two said things, joint stability and neuromuscular control, are essential to movement technique and application in dance. Specifically in ballet, as I see it as the basis and foundational form of dance movement, it seems as though PNF techniques should be heavily emphasized and discussed. It is my hope to apply PNF patterns and muscle awareness in my continuation of practicing not only dance, but everyday “pedestrian” movement.

  11. The correlation between these movements and the instruction we have undergone in class is an understatement. After roughly two months of instruction I can see how we have been taught the principles of PNF through out every class (besides when the potential future dancing professors led the class). I have felt this class to be more of a fundamental lesson in movement, and a kind of holisitc physical therapy session, rather than a modern dance class. And, I am grateful for this comprehensive exploration into body movement.

    The emphasis placed on kinesthetic, full-body awareness, has brought my attention to the crucial intersections of my skeletal-muscular power centers. While I still can’t effectively execute one of Gerald’s full routines, I have learned how to ‘delegate’ my energy more efficiently to the key areas required for iniating and controlling things like torsion, jumping, rotation, extension, flexion, and more. Beyond an intellectual understanding, I now feel what it is like to coordinate my brain’s thoughts with my body’s expression.

    The topic regarding mobility and stability is one of paramount importance for any serious dance student. Knowing when to start and stop, open and close a movement sequence is important for maintaing health, including the joints, bones, tendons, ligaments, muscles, and other soft tissue of the human body. I am thinking specifically about how rapidly, consistently the dancer will compress and lengthen their body, all the whilst twirling, leaping, and orbiting around the stage. The PNF pattern recognition is vital when conducting these complex articulations, as any failure of communication between the brian-body interface can cause a person to fumble, trip, or worse, develop injury.

    Watching the short video clips reconfirms my feelings about class. The arm movement modality in the clip reminded me of our upper body arm rotations we perform in our warm-ups, at the inception of class. At first glance in the mirror, the arm rotations appear simple, but as the video elucidates, great countermeasures go into the actualization of these arm rotations. On the ceberal level, it is almost too much to bear, trying to ‘figure out’ how to smoothly conduct these rotations, yet with the PNF programming, these complexities are more seamlessly integrated into what may be called a ‘flow state’. The counterbalances, and controlled forces applied in the physical therapy video are essentially what we have been striving to do in class, only under our own agency.

    As of this writing, I can just began to see the PNF dynamic playing out in my body, and as I akwardly attempt to employ this modality, I can begin to see it’s wide-reaching benefits for dance, and beyond. When I started class I was barely able to perform ground-work without wincing from pain, or laboring under heavy duress. Now, after significant exposure to PNF and other holsitic counsel, I am able to swim through floor-work more gracefully, fluidly. I have been able to more successfully land jumps and spins, and have learned how to transition from the ground to standing position with relative ease. While I have a long way to go in comprehending the PNF protocol, I can feel the beginning of its principles applied in my body’s expression on the dance floor. I am left hungry, craving more.

  12. When I first start to think about PNF, my reaction is just overwhelmed. For me reading about it is only half of learning about it, so watching the videos, although they are specific to subtle movements that target one area, they are definitely helpful. I think I struggle with seeing how the PNF patters are resent in all of our dance as previous responses have implied. I feel the patters when we do our floor work and warm up, but not as much when we get into our choreography.
    However, after reading the functional movement article I thinkPNF patterns and training seems incredibly natural and almost like a given of how training for physical activity should be done. I think going back to basics to connect the body with the mind is necessary to advance to other techniques, but also just to ensure that the body is maintaining its longevity. Overall, even with all the changes in style and exposure to several different styles, I see PNF patterns as a way to reset from varying techniques and styles within dance.

  13. This topic of PNF patterns really hit home for me since I have been interning at a physical therapy clinic all quarter. The approach they use there is very much similar to PNF and it is called DNS (Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization). Although DNS started in Czech Republic by a physiotherapist named Pavel Kolar, the underlying principles are very much the same. Movement patterns are based fundamentally on developmental kinesiology of motor and neurological systems of the body. Through this internship, I have witnessed how many basic movements patterns (i.e. walking and standing in place) are jeopardized by overuse of certain muscles caused by decentralized joints. Diagnosing any pain starts by finding where muscles are compensating and what movement patterns are decreasing a joint’s range of motion. From that understanding, physical therapists promote new movement patterns (stemming from a baby’s development) to help strengthen and stabilize the muscles from a centralized joint.

    This class alongside this internship has helped me think deeper into the structure of my movement patterns. I am more aware of the range of motion I have from the structure of my bones and where my weaknesses and strengths are. As dancers, I think we find out a little to late that there are places we can relax and let go in the body in order to find our full range of motion. This goes back to the idea of “undoing”. I see often that strengthening is perceived by contraction of the bigger superficial muscles when it should be finding the stability and balance of effort from both the agonist and antagonistic muscles. Personally, I am working on strengthening my deeper muscles (i.e. the pgogoq muscles in the hip joint) as well as letting go some of the stress on my superficial muscles (i.e. the quadriceps). It is through my fine tuning of anatomy where I feel I can improve my movement patterns and increase my range of motion. Understanding the proper ways to increase strength and stability are so important to prevent pain down the road. I am very happy to be incorporating all this knowledge now and I look forward to advancing with it.

  14. This is really good stuff! I’ve been exploring movement as a wholistic therapeutic practice and feel this is why I connected to modern dance some years ago. It seems to be an art form in and of itself where the practitioner is tapping into something exceptional. Working on this level has allowed me to release ideas of perfection and allow a much more wholistic approach to the form. Coming back to dance after some years with a few more injuries was frightening to me at first, however PNF patterning is exactly what I was looking for! Dance is a physical therapy, for some it is also a spiritual and psychological therapy if it is approached in this a way. And what a miraculous thing that is. I love the concept “undoing.” For many of us this is a constant struggle and dance class can lend toward doing on steroids. I think about what’s natural, and dancing on your toes or competing in dance… These hold no appeal, not because they’re not beautiful but because the lend to aesthetics primarily, which is fun to watch but can be painful to the artist, and therefore loose its true beauty. To me this correlation has been taught from the get go. My only desire is to know exercises through functional training, for we know the opposite does not and will not sustain. The body mind spirit wholistic approach is a necessity for my well being, and after years of trying with force, this approach is a fresh breathe! This allows everyone to be a dancer. And what a wonderful world that would be!

  15. After reading the two articles and watching the videos, I feel like I’ve come to understand the basics of PNF better – both in general terms, and in relation to the class. This class is actually the first time I have been fully introduced to PNF principles. Although I spent a lot of my childhood in a dance studio, my teachers never included PNF into their curriculum, so I never fully understood what I was lacking to achieve better balance, stability, and mobility. I have now come to realize that learning about/implementing PNF principles into dance training is extremely crucial in becoming a better mover.

    The interesting thing is, even though PNF was not created specifically in terms of dance movement theory, it is completely relevant because dance is MOVEMENT. PNF principles were created so athletes could become more aware of their neuromuscular system; improving their body-mind awareness, and creating a more solid sense of balance, mobility, and stability (all of which are crucial aspects of dance!) It’s so important to be consciously aware of the body and how it functions. I think most dance training lacks this implementation of this key awareness. Being in Gerald’s class has been so refreshing and enlightening. I can now FEEL my body move in ways I was never aware of or in control of.

    The videos directly coincide with the floor-work and center exercises we have been doing the past few weeks. The physical therapy exercises, like the ones we have been doing in class include resistance, extension, flexion, abduction, adduction, and cross-lateral movement/counterbalance. These movements are natural and unnatural at the same time. They feel unnatural to most dancers raised in a very conventional training setting. For example, contrary to my prior training, I am now SUPPOSED to sickle my feet at certain times in order get the most out of a certain exercise (it doesn’t have to be and should not be avoided!) In reality, the ways in which PNF principles ask us to move ARE natural. They are extremely necessary in order to achieve full body awareness and should be implemented by all dancers!

  16. The work we have done with the PNF patterns, the readings and the videos all portray a sort of relearning of how to use our bodies in space. This work reminds me of the Bartinieff work in the way of going back to infancy and filling in the blanks of possible missed necessary stages in development. I have taken anatomy and physiology a few times under different premises, for massage school, yoga training, and most recently in college as a clinical pre-requisite. It is interesting to learn about the body in various ways. Looking at the body in a mechanical way is really enlightening, such as when I learned about the muscles and bones of the body. While working with cadavers, I could see the muscles, where they attach, the joint(s) they cross, how large, long, or centrally focused they are really show exactly what their different purposes are. I think it is interesting to use the PNF patterns in a dance class to essentially learn from the outside and bring that learning into an embodied pool of knowledge. For example, we can learn that the quadriceps group of muscles extends the lower leg and also flexes the hip, then we can explore those various movements through the PNF patterns to feel how the quads work. We can relearn the functions and how to better utilize these bodies that we can take for granted and get stuck in many different ways of being rather than being present. The PNF work helps to safeguard against this complacency.

  17. Since this isn’t my first time exploring PNF patterns, I have been able to analyze them deeper. The way we move in normal life, wether we are taking a shower, cooking, walking (hiking and looking at the beauty of campus) to class, sitting in lecture, using body language to communicate, eating food, at a social event, etc, is very complex. These movements aren’t easily explainable through single binary expressions. We are consistently moving in all three planes of movement, while abducting, adducting, flexing, extending, and rotating our muscles and limbs. There are more dimensions to our movement than we think. The process of doing and undoing is in fact pertinent for us to do every day activities. For example, when I reach down for the soap in the lower left corner of my shower, I don’t reach down and then stay there. I begin in the upright position, then bend my knees and follow my eye line, twisting my torso while reaching across with my right hand, grabbing and lifting the soap, then undoing the twist to stand back up. The complexities within natural actions such as soap-reaching are we attempt to break down by talking about planes of movement, rotation of limbs, ect. This is partially why talking about movement is difficult at times. Even when we are doing basic human activities, we are creating complex shapes and actions.

    Recently, I have found myself trying to make my movements in my everyday life more complex. Or maybe I should say I am letting them be complex and acknowledging the details. I think there are two motives for this. One is to practice acknowledging facilitation in a proprioceptive manner in order to expand my mind as a mover and apply my education in my everyday movement. The other is when I facilitate these complexities, it feels right and comforting. It feels healthy and stretchy and just good! I think this is where the physical therapy aspect comes in. I find myself twisting, rotating my joints, and stretching in complex ways to break up my sit-study time. If I take moments to listen to my body and do what it needs, It doesn’t complain as much (I’m not in as much pain). When I find myself studying in weird positions for long periods of time. I make sure I counter stretch. I am learning kinesthetically through our PNF talks. I am able to facilitate complexities within my body in order to achieve whole body health.

  18. Reading these articles and watching the videos about PNF patterns has really helped me grasp what we have been working on in class. At first, it was hard to wrap my head around these new concepts since I have basically been using my body in the same ways while dancing for the majority of my life. Though I have had my fare share of physical therapy, actually learning about the concepts behind the exercises I was told to do really helps me understand the physical and mental healing qualities of the movements. In class we discussed the definition of proprioception. This was a new term to me, but after reading the article “Historical Perspective of PNF”, I understand it better and can now more skillfully be aware of PNF patterns when dancing in class. With the exercises we have been working on class, I find myself trying to achieve the balance discussed in the article “Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation: The Foundation of Functional Training”: the balance between mobility and stability. Finding the happy medium between these two qualities is quite difficult, but through the PNF patterns we have been doing in class, I find myself getting more balanced. With all this new knowledge, I find myself being more aware of how my body moves in the ways that it does, why it moves that way, and what makes it move that way. This newfound self-awareness has put me more in tune with the happenings of my body so to avoid pain and injury. I feel myself getting strong already.

  19. Learning about PNF patterns through the two articles and videos were super informative, and gave a lot more insight to the overall intention of PNF; while initially I believed PNF patterns were simply a physical therapy/recovery strategy, but the fact that it not only returns to health, but makes the body stronger is key, rather “it is a tool that allows for simultaneous assessment and treatment of neuromuscular dysfunction”. While I do understand that PNF is separated into two categories, strengthening and stretching, and patterning, I wish I had better knowledge of what a simple PNF pattern would look like. Must one always be working through the 3 planes? Can we use just one part of the body, ie. foot or ankle. How isolated, or full must the movement be to still be PNF effective? In the future, I’d love to continue PNF work, but with a partner as well– perhaps an example would be the floorwork exercise with Katie reaching with both her head and ball of the foot while two people pushed to send energy forward. Her form changed drastically, and while it seemed very tiring, it’s definitely something I’d love to try.

  20. Looking at the physical therapy videos, I can see the link between those movements and PNF. Both styles of movement focus on experiencing the movement in the body and emphasize the connection between the movements more than the look of the movements. Watching the physical therapy videos reminded me of the various times I’ve been to physical therapy. I didn’t really understand or enjoy the movements at the time and thus they didn’t do as much good as they could have. I was too caught up in trying to make the movements look exactly like they were shown to me that I didn’t realize the point of the movements. I neglected the connections between the movements in order to have the start and end look right. Learning about PNF has helped me realize my mistakes. It has taught me that not everything is about getting the look of the movements right. It has also taught me to breathe through the movements more. Doing so has made the movements themselves easier and more enjoyable. It has also given me a greater understanding of the way breath can really assist movement.

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